Farmacêuticas multinacionais mudam estratégia e focam atuação

Da Redação
ressionadas pelos altos custos, margens apertadas e portfólio cada vez mais reduzido de medicamentos considerados campeões de vendas (“blockbusters”), as farmacêuticas estão revendo estratégias para continuarem competitivas no mercado.

Os desafios são grandes e não indicam uma única direção. Grandes grupos estão se desfazendo de negócios não estratégicos para concentrar investimentos de pesquisa e desenvolvimento em medicamentos inovadores. Essa tendência aponta para produtos biológicos, voltados para tratamentos de doenças malignas, como câncer; e crônicas, como diabetes e problemas respiratórios. Essa estratégia, conhecida globalmente como “encolher para crescer”, arrebatou laboratórios como Pfizer, Abbott, Bristol Myers-Squibb (BMS), entre outros. E empresas consideradas nichos de mercado, como Shire e Genzyme, voltadas para tratamentos de doenças órfãs (genéticas e degenerativas), que englobam número limitado de pacientes, viraram alvo das gigantes.

Os países emergentes ganharam importância para esses grupos, que procuram nesses mercados crescimento anual acima de dois dígitos, segundo executivos de farmacêuticas e consultorias. “Dificilmente uma farmacêutica vai lançar um ‘blockbuster’, como o Lipitor [combate colesterol elevado], que garantia à Pfizer vendas anuais de US$ 13 bilhões”, disse um executivo de banco. A americana Pfizer tem seguido à risca a filosofia “encolher para crescer”, segundo fontes de mercado. A companhia vendeu em 2012 a divisão global de nutrição infantil para a Nestlé e desde 1º de fevereiro separou a área de saúde humana da divisão animal, da qual a múlti detém 80% das ações – os outros 20% estão no mercado. “A companhia sempre teve foco em inovação e está integrando também a medicina personalizada”, afirma Gabriela Cezar, diretora sênior de pesquisa e desenvolvimento da companhia para Brasil e América Latina.

Foi no Brasil que a Pfizer começou a produzir a versão genérica de seus medicamentos e de outros laboratórios, que perderam a patente. Em 2010, comprou 40% de participação do laboratório goiano Teuto, com a opção de adquirir os 60% no fim deste ano. Com pipeline de 78 produtos em desenvolvimento em diversas fases, a Pfizer também se dedica a pesquisas em doenças degenerativas, área antes concentrada em laboratórios como o inglês Shire e a americana Genzyme, adquirida em 2011 pela francesa Sanofi. “Os mercados nos quais a Genzyme e a Shire atuam viraram alvo de aquisição de grandes farmacêuticas”, afirma Pete Money, diretor global da área de saúde da Deloitte. Agora é a vez da Shire tornar-se alvo de cobiça de grandes companhias.

Desde o início deste ano, a americana Abbott mantém uma companhia independente, a AbbVie, para atuar em produtos farmacêuticos de pesquisa e inovação. A companhia de produtos médicos diversificados manterá o nome Abbott e abrigará o portfólio de produtos médicos diversificados, incluindo os produtos genéricos, dispositivos médicos, diagnósticos e nutricionais. Nesse mesmo sentido, a americana Bristol Myers-Squibb (BMS) fechou em fevereiro acordo com a inglesa Reckitt Benkiser no qual transfere os direitos para a companhia comercializar seus medicamentos isentos de prescrição na América Latina. Com esse acordo, avaliado em cerca de US$ 480 milhões, a BM-S foca seus negócios em medicamentos inovadores.

Nos últimos meses, a múlti fechou fábricas em todo mundo, incluindo o Brasil, para reduzir custos e concentrar esforços em áreas consideradas mais rentáveis. “As farmacêuticas estão focando em áreas terapêuticas nas quais possuem expertise e não mais em medicamentos que já possuem vários concorrentes no mercado. Os alvos de aquisições são companhias pequenas e médias que podem agregar inovação ou nichos de mercado para doenças que atendem um grupo menor de pacientes, mas com alto potencial de receita”, disse uma fonte de banco, com vários mandatos de fusões e aquisições nesse setor. “Dificilmente teremos uma farmacêutica global desenvolvendo mais um analgésico ou anti-inflamatório para concorrer com centenas de produtos nesse mesmo mercado.”

Fonte: Valor Econômico



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